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Note: The term is related to public administration in the area of migration, which refers to the management and implementation of all government activities relating to the implementation of laws, regulations and government decisions and management relating to the delivery of public services (United Nations Development Programme, Public Administration Reform Practice Note (2003), p. 2). Due to the focus on the organization and operationalization of public policies, migration management is generally understood as a more specific concept than migration governance. Migration management is primarily carried out by States, with the term “governance” referring to all frameworks, institutions and processes in the development and implementation of which many more actors than States alone are involved. Alternatives to detention – Any law, policy or practice, formal or informal to prevent unnecessary detention of individuals for reasons related to their immigration status. Source: Adapted from International Detention Coalition, There Are Alternatives: A Handbook for Preventing Unnecessary Immigration Detention (revised edition, 2015), p. 78. International Organization for Migration, Migration Glossary, IML Series No. 34, 2019, available here. Country of transit – In the context of migration, the country through which a person or group of persons transfers a journey to or from the country of destination to the country of origin or habitual residence. Source: Adapted from the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (adopted 18 December 1990, entered into force 1 July 2003) 2220 UNTS 3, art.

6 (c). Note: Intergovernmental consultation mechanisms on migration include global migration processes, interregional migration forums (linking two or more regions) and regional consultation processes on migration (for one region). A number of studies have highlighted the importance of migrant-sensitive health systems, which aim to consciously and systematically integrate the needs of multiple subgroups of migrants into all aspects of health care. A study was carried out on the views and values of healthcare providers operating in different health settings in 16 European countries to determine what constitutes good healthcare practice for all migrants, regardless of their definition (96). There was general consensus on the need for culturally empowered and migrant-friendly health systems. It was also agreed that the migrant health system should be accessible under the same conditions as the general population, regardless of the status of migrants, and on the importance of collecting and monitoring data on migrants` health (96). MIPEX described the best-case health care scenario as one in which migrants have legally and virtually the same coverage as nationals, with health care providers informed of these rights and allowed to serve all residents. All residents should be able to obtain information in different languages and through cultural intermediaries (186), as language and communication problems, as well as the lack of a social network, can also be obstacles (10).

The involvement of migrants in building migrant-friendly health systems that consciously and systematically integrate their needs into all aspects of their services was highlighted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and WHO (137,179) and recommended that community-based participatory action research methodologies be used to focus on issues of concern to migrant communities in the EU. European. • Develop culturally appropriate health information systems. Migration Management – The management and implementation of all activities involving mainly States within national systems or through bilateral and multilateral cooperation on all aspects of migration and the integration of migration considerations into public policies. The term refers to planned approaches to the implementation and operationalization of policy, legal and administrative frameworks developed by migration institutions. Article 1(1) shall apply to both migratory and non-migratory contexts. A stateless person, for example, may have lived his or her entire life and never crossed an international border. Nevertheless, statelessness is often seen as both a cause and a consequence of migration. In some cases, a stateless person may also become a refugee if he or she is born for fear of persecution on one of the grounds of the refugee definition (United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (adopted 28 July 1951, entered into force 22 April 1954) 189 UNTS 137) art. 1(A)(2)). See also pathways for migrants in precarious situations, regular migration, safe, orderly and regular migration A change of status (e.g.

Asylum seekers who are denied asylum and become irregular) can also have an impact on continued access to processing. A 2015 study of HIV-positive asylum seekers in the UK found that GPs often continued to provide care even after an asylum claim had been rejected, but continued access to secondary care was more difficult as some asylum seekers lost access to specialised HIV clinics or had to pay for them after their claim was rejected (78).